Once companies have decided what and to whom they are selling they need to generate sales using different promotional tools: advertising, sales promotions, public relations and personal selling, which are the main ones.
Advertising is a way to inform consumers about the existence and benefits of products and services, and tries to make the people buy them. There are many ways or advertising such as word-of-mouth, build boards, magazines, commercials, classified adds, sandwich-board man….
There are many advantages of using this promotional tool, the main one is that you can reach a lot of people effectively; the company can also choose the advertising media.
Advertising is complicated, the company needs to have a space in a medium and deciding how much to spend on this is always problematic.
There are some methods to determine how much to spend, but it has to be perfectly thought and studied because both, very little and excessive advertising, could be counter-productive.
Sales promotions such as free samples, coupons, price reductions, competitions, and so on, are temporary tactics designed to stimulate either earlier or stronger sales of a product. Sales promotions are a good tool to raise demands in short period of time and useful to attract people, especially brand switchers. Everyone likes small prices and free samples so its very easy to get used to it, once finished they could change of brand or product. It’s also an expensive and impersonal tool.
Public relations try to maintain, improve and protect a service or product. This is a face-to-face way of promoting, having the chance to change consumer opinions and answer their questions. On the other hand it is expensive and you can only talk to one person at a time so its impossible to reach the same amount of audience than using other promotional ways.
Publicity normally has a great impact on people.
As it is a free way of promotion, people tend to believe more in it. Good information about a product is great for the company because publicity reaches a huge audience who believes (normally) everything it says, what at the same time helps to keep loyal consumers. But information is not always supplied as the company would like, because publicity cannot be controlled, information may give the wrong impression.
The decision of which promotional tool to use is very important since budgets are always limited, consumers have different desires and there is a lot of competition.

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